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Archive for June, 2021


The Buckingham Players on the (rainy hot) road in India, circa 1952 (1965 Shakespeare Wallah)

A Syllabus

For a course at the Oscher LifeLong Learning Institute at George Mason University
Day: Six Wednesdays, 9:40 to 11:05 pm,
June 23 1 to July 28
4210 Roberts Road, Fairfax, Va 22032 but conducted online via zoom

Dr Ellen Moody

Description of Course:

In this class we will explore identity and gender politics, colonialism, emigration & slavery in three novels, viz., Caryl Philips’s Crossing the River, Ruth Prawer Jhabvala’s East into Upper East, and Jane Mander’s The Story of a New Zealand River. We will look at how history, law and custom, violence, cultures, economic and geographical circumstances, and the sheer need for survival affects people. What is it like to invent a new country? to live in a country that is being invented and excluding or exploiting you? Or a curiously isolated upper class who don’t belong to the country and yet are supposed to be in governing positions?  Or to live in an old country where you are not allowed to belong?  We’ll also see/discuss three movies: Merchant-Ivory-Jhabvala’s 1965 Shakespeare Wallah; Mira Nair’s 1993 Namesake & Jane Campion’s 1993 film, The Piano. We will imaginatively go right round the world in books & movies.

Required books (in the order we’ll read them):

Phillips, Caryl. Crossing the River. NY: Vintage, 1993. ISBN 978-0-679-75794-8
Jhabvala, Ruth Prawer. East into Upper East. Washington, D. C. Counterpoint, 1998. ISBN 1-58243-034-9 (Alternative edition: London: John Murray, 1998. ISBN978-0719555862)
Mander, Jane. The Story of a New Zealand River. 1975 reprint: USA, London, New Zealand, Hong Kong: Robert Hale/Whitcoullis Publishers, 1938. ISBN 0-7233-0364-9 (Alternative edition, 1920 first edition reprinted online: https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Story_of_a_New_Zealand_River/JMAkAAAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&printsec=frontcover; also facsimile of this: Andesite, 2017, ISBN 978-1375466561).

Movies (in the order we’ll discuss them):

Shakespeare Wallah. Prod/Dir. IMerchant/MIvory. Script: RPJhabvala Perf. Shashi Kapoor, Geoffrey and Felicity Kendall. Filmed in India, distributed first in the UK, India, US. Amazon Prime: https://www.amazon.com/Shakespeare-Wallah-Madhur-Jaffrey/dp/B084GHY9RG/ref=sr_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=shakespeare+wallah&qid=1623697479&s=movies-tv&sr=1-1. Also for rent as a DVD from Netflix, and for sale as a DVD on Amazon & elsewhere

The Namesake. Prod/Dir. Mira Nair. Script: Sooni Taraporevala. Adapted from novel by Jhumpa Lahiri. Perf. Irfann Khan,Tabu, Kal Penn. Filmed in India & Boston. Available on Amazon Prime: https://www.amazon.com/Namesake-Irfan-Khan/dp/B009EE88XE/ref=sr_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=The+namesake&qid=1623697870&s=instant-video&sr=1-1 Also for rent as a DVD from Netflix, and for sale as a DVD on Amazon & elsewhere

The Piano. Prof/Dir/Script. Jane Campion. Perf. Holly Hunter, Sam Neill, Harvey Keitel, Anna Paquin. Filmed in New Zealand, Australia and France. Available on Amazon Prime: https://www.amazon.com/Piano-Holly-Hunter/dp/B00DNO3DS6/ref=sr_1_1?crid=1GM1OZD6JFH0I&dchild=1&keywords=the+piano&qid=1623697947&s=instant-video&sprefix=The+piano%2Cinstant-video%2C152&sr=1-1. Also for rent as DVD from Netflix, and for sale as a DVD on Amazon & elsewhere


East Into Upper East (detail from cover illustration by C. S. H. Jhabvala)


Ashoke Ganguli (Irfann Khan) on the train (2006, The Namesake)

Format: The class will be a mix of informal lecture and group discussion. For the first week I recommend reading Caryl Phillips’s Crossing the River before we start — it is very powerful. I suggest you alternative between movies and stories in the way ordered below:

June 23 Introduction:  Post-colonialism and the novel. Slavery, Africa, Race: US & UK: Caryl Phillips, and then Crossing the River.

June 30: Crossing the River. Anglo-Indian films & books: Shakespeare Wallah.

July 7: Ruth Prawer Jhabvala: 9 stories from East into Upper East: We will read “Farid and Farida,” “Independence,” “Development and Progress” (these stories are set just after India achieved its independence from the UK), “A New Delhi Romance” and “Husband and Son;” (and set in NY): “A Summer by the Sea,” “Great Expectations,” and “Broken Promises” and “Two Muses”

July 14: Finish East into Upper East. Mira Nair. The Namesake. (There is a novel by Jumpa Lahiri if you want to read or read about it but amazingly on line is the whole of her Pultizer prize winning volume, Interpreters of Maladies, and I can suggest one close in themes — finding or building a new identity, and will send the pdf; click here to access it online: http://jhou.weebly.com/uploads/3/0/8/0/30800919/interpreter_of_maladies.pdf)

July 21: Jane Mander, New Zealand & Australian colonialism, The Story of a New Zealand River.

July 28: Finish New Zealand. Jane Campion’s The Piano. Thoughts about colonialism.

Suggested Outside Reading:

Bari, Deepika, “The Namesake: Deepika Bahri is Touched by Mira Nair’s Vivid, Sonorous Account of Immigrant Life in an Adopted Home City.” Review in Film Quarterly, 61:1 (Fall 2007):10-15
Friedman, Natalie. “From Hybrids to Tourists: Children of Immigrants in Jumpa Lahiri’s Namesake,” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction, 50:1 (Fall 2006):111-28
Hoeveler, Diane Long, “Silence, Sex, and Feminism: An Examination of “The Piano‘s” Unacknowledged Sources,” Literature/Film Quarterly 26:2 (1998):109-116 (I will send this by attachment)
Jhabvala, Ruth Prawer. “Myself in India” (reprinted in An Experience of India). Or Heat and Dust. NY: Simon & Shuster, 1980 (Book Prize winner)
Ledent, Benedicte. Caryl Phillips. Contemporary World Writers. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2002
Lahiri, Jumpa. The Namesake. NY: Houghton Mifflin, 2003.
Lazarus, Neil. The Cambridge Companion to Post-Colonial Literary Studies. Cambridge, 2004.
Moffatt, Kirstine. “The Piano as Symbolic Capital in New Zealand Fiction, 1860-1940,” Journal of New Zealand Literature (JNZL) 28 (2010):34-60
Moody, Ellen. Early Merchant-Ivory-Jhabvala, “The Householder/Shakespeare Wallah” to Roseland/Heat and Dust” (& The Europeans, w/bibliograph), Ellen and Jim have a blog, two, online at: https://ellenandjim.wordpress.com/2021/06/12/early-merchant-ivory-jhabvala-films-the-householder-shakespeare-wallah-to-roseland-heat-and-dust/ June 12,2021
Phillips, Caryl. Cambridge. NY: Vintage, 1991. Color Me English: Migration and Belonging Before and After 19/11. London & NY: New Press, 2011; The European Tribe. NY: Vintage, 1987. And “One Grim Evening: The Colonial Migrant in Britain,” Times Literary Supplement, December 18, 2020.
Pym, John. The Wandering Company: Twenty-One years of Merchant-Ivory films. London: BFI, 1983.
Singh, Rishi Pal. Ruth Prawer Jhabvala’s Novels: Woman amidst Snares and Delusions. New Delhi: Atlantic, 2009.
Sucher, Laurie. The Fiction of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala: The Politics of Passion. NY: St Martin’s, 1989.
Turner, Dorothea. Jane Mander. NY: Twayne, 1972.


Ada (Holly Hunter), Flora (Anna Panquin) and their piano and goods on the beach waiting to be moved into Alisdair Stewart’s house by the Maoris (The Piano 1993)

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“So you just assumed me to be ignorant.” [the servant James, who is a central consciousness in the book & reads serious history].
No, but — “[Sarah, our main heroine]
“But it never occurred to you that I might read more widely than, say you, for example?
“I read all the time! Don’t I, Mrs Hill?
“The housekeeper nodded sagely.
“MrB allows me books, and his newspapers, and Miss Elizabeth always gives me whatever novel she has borrowed from the circulating library.”
“Of course, yes. Miss Elizabeth’s novels. I’m sure they are very nice.”
“She set her jaw, her eyes narrowed. Then she turned to Mrs Hill.
“They have a black man at Netherfield, did you know? she announced triumphnty. “I was talking to him yesterday.”
James paused in his work, then tilted his head, and got on with his polishing.
“Well,” said Mrs Hill, “I expect Mrs Nicholls needs all the help that she can get.” (Longbourn, p 49)

Our family affairs are rather deranged at present, for Nanny has kept her bed these three or four days with a pain on her side and fever, and we are forced to have two charwomen which is not very comfortable. She is considerably better now, but it must be some time, I suppose, before she is able to do anything. You and Edward will be surprised when you know that Nanny Littlewart dresses my hair ….

Anna has not a chance of escape; her husband called here the other day, & said she was pretty well but not equal to “so long a walk; she must come in her “Donkey Carriage.”–Poor Animal, she will be worn out before she is thirty.—I am very sorry for her.–Mrs Clement too is in that way again. I am quite tired of so many Children.–Mrs Benn has a 13th… (Jane Austen’s Letters, ed. Le Faye 22, 336, Letters dated Sunday 25 November 1798; Sunday 23- Tuesday 25 March 1817)

Dear friends,

Another unusual kind of blog for me: I’m pointing out three other very good postings on three other blogs. The content or emphases in two of them are linked: these bring before us the direct underworld of Austen’s experience: the lives of servants all around her and her characters. The first by Rohen Maitzen, is valuable as an unusually long and serious review of an Austen sequel or post-text. Maitzen suggests that Longbourn is so much better than most sequels because Baker builds up her own imaginative world alongside Austen’s. It’s another way of expressing one of my central arguments in my blog on the novel. I also partly attributed the strength of the book to Baker’s developing these marginal (or outside the action) characters within Austen. Longbourn reminded me of Valerie Martin’s Mary Reilly or Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead : they too focus most of the action and intense subjectivities from within the marginalized characters. I thought Baker also used elements from the Austen film adaptations, and particularly owed a lot to Andrew Davies’ 1995 P&P; I wondered if she got the idea from the use made of the real house both in the film and companion book:

And this allegiance suggests why Longbourn does not rise above its status or type as a sequel, not a book quite in its own right: Baker’s research stays within the parameters of Austen’s own Pride and Prejudice except when she sends the mysterious footman (Mr Bennet’s illegitimate son by Mrs Hill) to the peninsular war. Had she developed this sequence much further, researched what happened in Portugal and Spain, Longbourn might have been a historical novel in its own right the way Mary Reilly and Jean Rhys’s Wide Sargasso Sea is.

While I’m at it, here’s a good if short review from The Guardian‘s Hannah Rosefield of Longbourn. Baker has written another post-text kind of novel, A Country Road, A Tree: a biography of Samuel Beckett for the period leading up to and perhaps inspiring Beckett’s Waiting for Godot.

And a note on The Jane Austen Book Club by Joy Fowler, film adaptation Robin Swicord, and link to an older blog-review.

Sylvia, our part Fanny Price, part Anne Elliot character reading for February


Jean Chardin’s Washerwoman and a Cat

Vic Sanbourn has written an excellent thorough blog called Unseen and Unnoticed Servants in the background of Jane Austen’s Novels & Life. Of course dedicated readers of Austen are aware of the not infrequent and sudden referrals in the texts to a servant right there all the time, ready to take a character’s horse away, there in the room to pick something up, to fetch someone, as someone one of Austen’s vivid characters refers to and may even quote; if you read her letters, especially those later in Bath, you find her referring (usually comically) to one of the servants. When it’s a question of discussing when a meal is to be served or some task accomplished a servant is mentioned. In her letters we hear of Mr Austen’s worry about a specific servant (real person)’s fate once the family leaves Steventon; Jane borrows a copy of the first volume of Robinson Crusoe for a male servant in Bath. Vic has carefully studied some of these references, and she provides an extensive bibliography for the reader to follow up with. She reprints Hogarth’s famous “Heads of Six Servants.”

I’ll add that some of Austen’s characters come near to being servants: Fanny Price, Jane Fairfax. We see Mrs Price struggling with her one regular servant, Rebecca, trying to get her to do all the hard or messy work, the continual provision of food. Austen was herself also friends with people who went out (as it were) to service. Martha Lloyd worked as a companion. Austen visited Highclere Castle (renamed Downton Abbey for the serial) to have tea with its housekeeper. A young woman we know Austen had a deep congenial relationship with, Anne Sharpe (“She is an excellent kind friend”, was governess for a time at Godmersham.


Elizabeth Poldark Warleggan (Jill Townsend) suffering badly after a early childbirth brought on by a doctor via a contemporary herb mixture she herself wanted, a puzzled Dr Enys (Michael Cadman) by her side (1978 BBC Poldark, Episode 13)

Lastly, while Diana Birchall’s blog on Austen’s mentions of confinement (the last weeks of a woman’s pregnancy, the time of self-withdrawal with people helping you to give birth, the immediate aftermath) is not on marginalized characters, it is itself a subject often marginalized when brought up at all in literary criticism and reviews. It is not a subject directly addressed in the novels, and it is a subject frequently brought up through irony, sarcasm, and sheer weariness and alienated mentions in Austen’s letters. Readers concentrate sometimes with horror over Austen’s raillery and mockery of women in parturition, grown so big that they must keep out of large public groups (by the 9th month), and her alienation from the continual pregnancies and real risks to life (as well as being all messy a lot) imposed on all women once they married. So this is a subject as much in need of treatment as distinguishing what makes a good post-text and servants in the era. From Diana’s blog we become aware that had Austen wanted or dared (she was a maiden lady and was not by mores allowed to write of topics that showed real knowledge of female sexuality) she could have written novels where we experience women giving birth. Diana shows the process also reinforced the social confinement of women of this genteel class in this era.

I gave a paper and put on academia.edu that her caustic way of describing parturition can be aligned with her wildly anti-pathetic way of coping with death and intense suffering: the more pain and risk, the more hilarity she creates — we see this in the mood of Sanditon, written by her when she too is very ill and dying. See my The Depiction of Widows and Widowers in the Austen Canon

It has become so common for recent critics and scholars to find “new approaches” by postulating preposterous ideas (about her supposed Catholic sympathies, her intense religiosity; see my review of Battigelli’s Art and Artefacts; Roger Moore has become quite explicit that in Mansfield Park we have a novel as religious sacred text) partly because there is still a strong inhibition against associating Jane Austen with bodily issues and people living on the edge of gentility dependent on a very few too hard-working servants. So issues right there, as yet untreated fully, staring at us in plain sight go unattended. In Downton Abbey she would not have associated with Lady Mary Crawley, but rather Mrs Hughes. Until recently many readers would not have wanted to know that or not have been able to (or thought to) comprehend that is where fringe genteel people also placed.

Ellen

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